Essay On Nursing

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Question 1

A vein thrombus occurs in the deep veins located in the legs of pelvis. The vein thrombus entails a clot that blocks the blood vessels causing serious health complications. Numerous risk factors may lead to development of a deep vein thrombus (DVT). These risk factors include a previous history of venous thromboembolism may cause a deep vein thrombus condition. Further, a previous episode of deep vein thrombus may also increase the chances of one developing a serious deep vein thrombosis condition.

Further, major surgeries in the lower limb or the abdomen may cause deep vein thrombus. Immobilization that is caused by old age or severe medical problem also increases the risk of one developing deep vein thrombus. Research studies also show a relationship between antiphospholipid syndrome especially systemic lupus erythmatosis (SLE). Consequently, other conditions such as pregnancy, Crohn’s disease and combined use of oral contraceptives are also risk factors of developing deep vein thrombus. Symptoms of the condition entail limb pain located along the deep veins, distention of the superficial veins, swelling of the thigh, skin discoloration low-grade fever, and a hard thick palpable vein (Buttaro, 2013).

Various tests are performed to confirm the presence of a deep vein thrombus. A medical history is important to show if the patient has had any predisposing medical conditions such s surgeries or cancer. Further, a physical exam is used to confirm the presence of a deep vein thrombus. Physical exams evaluate legs, heart, lungs and the level of blood pressure. Diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, D-dimer tests, venography and computed tomography scanning are also used to determine if a patient has deep vein thrombus. These tests assess if there are blood clots located in the deep veins leading to the deep vein thrombus condition (Buttaro, 2013).

Question 2

Cardiovascular disease may occur because of pregnancy complications. Pregnancy related cardiovascular disease conditions have increased over the past decade. This is because major hemodynamic changes occur during pregnancy, labor and delivery. These hemodynamic changes occur develop during the first five weeks of gestation. Further, patients with a previous medical history of cardiovascular disease may increase the chances of developing the condition during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the blood volume increases to 50% and this outweighs the increase in the number of blood cells (Bickley, 2010). This leads to the falls in the overall hemoglobin concentration mostly referred to as anemia of pregnancy.

Consequently, the cardiac output increases from 30%-50% during pregnancy. The rise in the cardiac output is caused by the great blood volume during pregnancy, fall in the systemic vascular resistance and increase in the maternal heart rate. The level of blood pressure falls to 10 mm Hg at the end of the second pregnancy trimester. This is caused by the reduction of the systemic vascular resistance and the increase in the number of blood vessels present in the placenta and the uterus (Bickley, 2010).

Cardiovascular disease can be complicated during pregnancy. This is because pregnancy entails the well-being of the mother and the unborn child. Thus, effective treatment measures should be performed to safeguard the live of the mother and the unborn baby. Percutaneous therapy is essential in the management of the condition during pregnancy. The best time to perform this therapy is after the fourth month during the second semester of the pregnancy. In addition, cardiac surgery should be performed with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, cardiac mobility increased the chances of fetal mortality (Buttaro, 2013). Thus, this surgery is recommended when other therapies have failed. Lifestyle self-management measures are the most effective in this case. This include, eating healthy balanced diets during pregnancy, engaging in simple exercises that do not harm the fetal condition and avoiding substance abuse.

Question 3

Low leg edema is the swelling of the leg due to abnormalities in the locoregional lymphatic drainage. This leads to the increase in the interstitial volume that occurs because of accumulation of tissue fluid. Lymphedema condition can mostly occur in the lower leg region. However, the condition can also occur in the arm and the external genitalia.

There are differential diagnoses that arise with similar clinical manifestations as lower led edema. These differential diagnoses include secondary lymphedema, lipedema, adverse reactions resulting from ipsilateral limb surgery and venous disease. computed tomography, ultrasound or magnetic imaging are used to confirm the possibility of lymphedema. Further, lymphoscintigraphy is necessary to demonstrate the lymphatic anatomy (Buttaro, 2013).

Treatment measures in lower leg edema entail conservative treatment, pharmacologic and surgical treatment. Conservative treatment entails physical treatments to reduce the elevated levels of lymphangitis and cellulitis. Physical treatment entails special exercises, massage and compression to drain the lymphatic fluid. Moreover, heat therapy is used to reduce the leg volume and improve the level of skin addition, pharmacologic treatments include micronized purified flavonoid fraction. This is an effective drug used to reduce idiopathic cyclic edema, postmastectomy lymphedema and chronic venus insufficiency. Surgical treatment such as prophylactic surgery and bypass surgery are advised incase other therapies fail (Bickley, 2010).

Venus insufficiency occurs when the veins have trouble sending blood from the limbs back to the heart. In this condition, blood flows abnormally causing poor blood drainage in the leg region. Symptoms of the condition include pain, ulcers of the legs and swelling. On the other hand, arterial insufficiency is a condition that leads to slow flow of blood through the arteries. This can be caused by atherosclerosis or blood clots present in the arteries. Symptoms include chest pains, heart attacks, leg cramping and stroke (Buttaro, 2013).

Question 4

Herpes virus is the cause of ventricular lesions of the oral mucosa. These lesions are commonly reffered to as cold sores. The Herpes virus affects a wide variety of body organs including the genitalia, eye, liver, ventral nervous system and the lung. The signs and symptoms of herpes include pain or itching, ulcers, scabs, tiny red bumps or white blisters. The ulcers in the genitalia make it hard to urinate. Various laboratory tests are used to assess the herpes condition. Viral culture is a test that entails a tissue sample or scraping the sores for laboratory examination. Further, polymerase chain reaction tests is used to detect DNA tests from blood, tissue or sore samples. These samples are tested to evaluate what type of herpes the patient has. Moreover, blood tests are necessary to test for the presence of herpes virus in the body (Bickley, 2013).

Herpes treatment entails an intermittent suppressive therapy, episodic therapy and chronic suppressive therapy. These therapies are conducted based on the presenting clinical manifestations of the patient. Evidence based treatments include dosing regimens. Valacychloride, acyclovir and famciclovir are antiviral drugs used to treat symptomatic herpes virus. In addition, patient information is necessary regarding the presenting clinical condition. Patients should be educated about their condition. Patients with herpes should take a lot of fluids and eating healthy balanced diets. Further, patients suffering from herpes should not engage in sexual intercourse to avoid further spread of the condition (Buttaro, 2013).

Question 5

Tanner stages entail pubertal maturation that influence the sequence, timing and adolescents tempo among young adults. Tanner adolescent stages may vary from culture to culture leading to early or late puberty. Excess hormone stimulation leads to early puberty. This comes from the brain or from the gonads. Hormone stimulation may lead to overproduction of sex hormones. On the other hand, delayed puberty is caused by insufficient sex hormones.

However, various congenital disorders referred to as polyglandular deficiency syndromes lead to failure of the hormone output. Children with this syndromes experience abnormal puberty. The onset of adolescent developments can vary among individuals. For instance, one may start developing body changes before other age mates because of different genetic factors, body mass, general health and nutritional state. Thus, this leads to the culture to culture differences among adolescents (Fung, Gomez, Hwang, Dash, Allen, Hilakivi-Clarke & Wang, 2015).

Question 6

Bethesda classification for pap smears entails assessing different degrees of cervical cell changes. The Bethesda classification system grades minor cervical cell changes into three categories. This includes atypical squamous cells evaluation that can be categorized into high-grade intraepithelial lesions, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and mild dysplasia. Abnormal Pap smear test results may indicate the possibility of an underlying infection, inflammation of the cervical cells and atrophic vaginitis caused by menopause. Further, abnormal pap smear test results may also indicate cervical cancer (Buttaro, 2013).

Low-grade pap smear is managed by CIN 1 biopsy in women. Furthermore, if biopsy tests are positive the pathologists engage the patient in a loop electrosurgical excision to remove the infected area in the cervix. On the other hand, high-grade pap smear is treated by removing or destroying the infected region. In addition, hysterectomy is performed on women who have completed childbearing (Bickley, 2010).


Buttaro, T. M. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Mosby.
Fung, T., Gomez, S., Hwang, Y. T., Dash, C., Allen, L., Hilakivi-Clarke, L., & Wang, J. (2015).
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2011). Child and Adolescent Health and Health Care Quality: Measuring What Matters. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
Lynn S. Bickley. (2010). Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. Lippincott Willians & Wilkins, ISBN: 9781609137625.