Essay On Response

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Response 1
According to (Edmunds, 2013), beta blockers have effects on sympathetic neurotransmitters; noradrenaline and adrenaline. For heart disease, they reduce the sympathetic tone. They have their effect through blockage of B1 receptors in the heart (Katzung, Masters & Trevor, 2012). By so doing, they prevent remodeling from taking place. For hypertension, they alter baroreceptor sensitivity. There are both selective and non-selective beta blockers. Beta blockers have associated degrees of toxicities and contraindication such as bradycardia and gastrointestinal disturbances.

Response 2

An explicit explanation of mechanisms of beta blockers through their antagonistic effects on the sympathetic nerve and/or circulating catecholamine. Good examples of medications that do not inhibit the release of renin. An intricate analysis of therapeutic use of beta-blockers for both hypertension and heart disease (Katzung, Masters & Trevor, 2012). A detailed outlook of beta blockers in the treatment of arrhythmias. Relevant provision of contraindications of beta-blockers and associated toxicities. And excellent distinction of selective and non-selective beta-blockers with differences in the site of action.

Response 3

Good introductory note on the role of diuretics such as heart failure and renal failure. Provided brief yet detailed function of the kidney (Edmunds, 2013). A great distinction between role and function of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, loop, thiazides and spironolactone. It would be appropriate, however, to provide an example in each case for better understanding. Good explanations of the associated toxicities of the diuretics.

Response 4

Excellent explanation of the mode of action of diuretics especially in treating the edematous states. It would have been appropriate to mention hyperkalemia in case of potassium-sparing diuretics (Harvey, Clark, Finkel & Rey, 2012). A foundational explanation of kidney functions with three major processes being mentioned. Good explanation of the five types of diuretics and their side of action. Associated toxicities of the diuretics such as hyperuricemia and hyonatremia have been given. It would be excellent to give an explanation of each diuretic separately.

Edmunds, Mayhew, M. (2014). Pharmacology for the Primary Care Provider [VitalSouce bookshelf version].
Katzung, B. G., Masters, S. B., & Trevor, A. J. (2012). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (12th ed.). New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Harvey, R. A., Clark, M. A., Finkel, R., Rey, J. A., & ;, W. K. (2012). Pharmacology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.