Essay On Glomerular Filtration & Tubular Reabsorption & Secretion


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Glomerular Filtration & Tubular Reabsorption & Secretion.

Glomerular filtration takes place in blood vessels where certain elements are taken out of the blood and others are absorbed into the blood. In the blood system, the afferent arteriole is larger than the efferent arteriole in diameter. The blood within the glomerulus receives pressure from the difference in the size of the afferent and efferent arteriole. The pressure enables different substances to go through the glomerular capillaries. For example, water, salts, urea and glucose are some of the molecular substances leave the glomerulus capillaries. However, plasma proteins and blood cells do not get through the glomerular capillaries because they are larger in size (Porth, Matfin, Barkman & Pooler, 2009).

The salts, water, glucose and urea that are excreted from the glomerular capillaries enter the Bowman’s capsule. The substances secreted from the glomerular capillaries into the Bowman’s capsule are called glomerual filtrate. The glomerular filtrate further passes through the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule. Consequently, the glomerular filtrate rate measures the level of kidney damage. Thus, the glomerular filtrate rate can be diagnosed to measure the level of kidney damage (Alagarsamy, 2010).

Discuss the relationships between intracellular and extracelluar fluid volumes

The body fluids are widely distributed to three major parts of the body. Water fluids comprise of the intracellular fluids and the extracellular fluids. There are three parts of body fluids, which include the interstitium, intracellar space and the vascular space. The interstitium is comprised of the extracellular cell environment. The body regulates the intracellular volume through plasma osmolality. On the other hand, the intracellular plasma volume is regulated by sodium balance. The plasma volume should be maintained because it is necessary for tissue perfusion (Porth, Matfin, Barkman & Pooler, 2009).
Osmotic forces are the main moderators of water distribution all through the body. Water passes through cell membranes, thus in order to maintain the required extracellular and cellular fluid balance, body fluid is in an osmotic equilibrium state. The movement of water from one concentration region to another is called osmosis. During the intracellular and cellular exchange of water, hydrostatic pressure determines the level of osmotic water movement. Hydrostatic pressure pulls water back to the solute-free concentration. Therefore, for the body to establish an equilibrium state, the hydrostatic pressure is equivalent to the force pulling water through the membrane. Hydrostatic pressure is referred to as the osmotic pressure of the solution (Rosdahl & Kowalski, 2008).

Osmotic pressure is generated by the number of particles present is a single unit of solvent in a solution. Nevertheless, the solute should be unable to penetrate the membrane. Thus, lipids and proteins enhance movement of solutes within the cell membrane through ionic activity. Intracellular fluids contain compounds that are mostly negatively charged. Therefore, for these compounds to penetrate the membrane, they use the sodium and potassium ions present in the intracellular matrix (Alagarsamy, 2010).

The difference in sodium and potassium ions concentration within the cell membrane enhances penetration of compounds into the cell and out of the cell. The membrane creates a sodium-potassium pump that facilitates the movement of compound within the cell membrane. Sodium ions facilitate transport transportation of compounds from inside the cell and potassium ions transport compounds into the cell (Alagarsamy, 2010).

References
Porth, C., Matfin, G., Barkman, A., & Pooler, C. (2009). Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. 8th ed.
Rosdahl, C. B., & Kowalski, M. T. (2008). Textbook of basic nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Alagarsamy, V. (2010). Textbook of medicinal chemistry: Volume 1. New Delhi: Reed/Elsevier.