Essay On Discontinuation Syndrome

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Discontinuation Syndrome

What is discontinuation syndrome?

Discontinuation syndrome are the symptoms that prevail after one stops a medicine therapy. Discontinuation syndrome mostly occurs with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tetracyclic and tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Further, there are other newer antidepressants with discontinuation syndromes. Discontinuation syndromes usually occur between 1-3 days after stopping medication (Bezchlibnyk-Butler, 2013).

Can patients with high-blood pressure utilize antihistamines?

Patients with high-blood pressure can utilize antihistamines. However, physicians advise that patients with high-blood pressure should first seek consultation from a doctor before using over-the-counter antihistamines. This is because combination therapy that involves antihistamines and other drugs can result to secondary hypertension (Hoffman, 2012).
What are the unintended side effects of antihistamines when used as hypnotics?

Some antihistamine drugs are used as non-prescription hypnotics. For instance, diphenhydramine is a commonly used anti histamine hypnotic. Nevertheless, these antihistamines used as hypnotics can lead to unwanted side effects. These drugs cause daytime sleepiness and dryness in the mouth and throat. Thus, patients who have been diagnosed with chronic lung disease are advised to avoid antihistamines for sleeping aids. Further, antihistamines can lead to severe adverse effects when used at the same time with nausea medications (Lilley, Collins, Snyder & Savoca, 2014).

What are the effects of antihistamines on the peripheral autonomic nervous system?

Some antihistamine lead to various side effects such as drowsiness, constipation, blurry vision and urinary retention. Thus, antihistamines can block actions by the cholinergic system. Moreover, antihistamine have different mechanism of actions, which all have a direct impact on the brain and blood barriers in the body. Thus, the drugs can easily penetrate the blood and deposit their anti-cholinergic effects (Hoffman, 2012).

Moreover, antihistamines can cause repetitive muscle movements, trembling or rigid limbs and compulsive restlessness. Although these adverse effects are rare, they are still considered as potential risks to the patient (Bezchlibnyk-Butler, 2013).

Are there any special considerations associated with using antidepressants for pediatric and geriatric patients?

Geriatric patients are posed to the risks of muscle and joint pains, insomnia, headaches and skin rashes by SSRI’s. SSRI’s can lead to various sexual effects such as inhibition of ejaculation in men. Further, these drugs can cause delayed or prevention of orgasm in women. Moreover, some female patients may encounter dryness in the vagina and loss of sexual interest. This may diminish the sexual desire for people undertaking these drugs (Lilley, Collins, Snyder & Savoca, 2014).
What are the toxicities associated with SSRI’s?

SSRI’s penetrate other receptor systems that are unrelated to depression. Thus, this leads to adverse effects due to the SSRI’s mechanisms of action present in the other receptor systems that are unintended. This limits the use of these antidepressants in clinical practice. Although SSRI’s have potential efficacy, they also have a narrow therapeutic index. Thus, at high doses, they can slow the intraventricular conduction. Therefore, this leads to heart failure due to blockage (Bezchlibnyk-Butler, 2013).


Bezchlibnyk-Butler, K. Z. (2013). Clinical Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Hogrefe Publishing.
Lilley, L. L., Collins, S. R., Snyder, J. S., & Savoca, D. (2014). Pharmacology and the nursing process. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Mosby.
Hoffmann, R. P. (2013). Ask the pharmacist: Drug & health information for the consumer. Bloomington: iUniverse.